java vs. kotlin

Java development time is 15-20% quicker than Kotlin compilation time. However, when it comes to the development lifecycle to assemble compilation, Kotlin performs similarly to Java.
Java vs Kotlin

Several programming languages, including Kotlin, Groovy, and Scala, operate natively on the JVM in addition to Java. This essay will contrast Kotlin vs. java android, two major Java programming languages.

Java-Specific Functions

  • Exceptions with Checkmarks – Java supports checked exceptions, which should be declared & caught in code. As a result, Java developers guarantee more resilient code by dealing with problems in the code.
  • Primitive Types – Primitive types were before data types in Java. As a result, a variable with a primitive class is not an object. In addition, there are eight primitive types of data in Java: int, byte, long, double, floating, boolean, char, & long.
  • Wildcards types – By using a question mark, Java allows its use of wild types. In a type specifier, use the question mark (?) As a result, it implies an uncertain sort of variable name, parameter, feature, or return type.
  • Ternary Operator – The ternary operator in Java is a condensed version of the if-else conditional that returns the value, resulting in shorter, more legible, and clearer code. However, Java generates the ternary operator in the same way as it does the if-else condition.
  • Static Members – Java provides static members, which means that only one instance of a class is created & shared across all the cases.
  • Implicit Widening Conversions – Java implicitly supports widening conversions. As a result, it enables the translation of more minor data to more extensive data types.
  • Non-Private Fields – Java supports non-private or public fields, which come in handy when a developer wants to provide access from anywhere.

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Kotlin-Specific Characteristics

  • Data Types – By introducing a data keyword with a class declaration, Kotlin offers data classes (made to hold some data). As a result, the compiler automatically builds getters/setters & constructors for the data class. However, the record keyword has been available in Java since Java 14 to make immutable data classes.
  • String Templates – Kotlin’s String template supports string literals with embedded expressions. At runtime, the result of the contained expression is also determined and appended to the string.
  • Primary Builders – Kotlin supports primary constructors. In addition to a primary function Object() { [native code] }, a Kotlin class can also have secondary constructors.
  • Individuals – Kotlin makes declaring a singleton as simple as saying an object. Furthermore, the singleton’s instantiation of The object is completed on first access, which is also thread-safe.
  • Range Expressions – Kotlin offers range expressions via the range function (written as…), which helps create and iterate over a value range, resulting in shorter and more understandable code. Similarly, we can iterate through a field in the opposite order using the down-to-operator.
  • Overloading of the Operator – Operator overloading is supported in Kotlin by specifying custom implementation for the predefined set of operators on types.
  • Implicit Delegation – Kotlin uses the composition above the inheritance design pattern to provide implicit delegation. Furthermore, class delegation allows for multiple inheritances to exist. The quotation marks as an example may be found on our Kotlin page on lambdas: Lambda Literal Outside of the Brackets.
  • Lamdas with such a Single Parameter – In Kotlin, we can refer to a single parameter within a lambda using the shorthand variable.
  • Infix Notation – As an infix function, a feature with only one parameter can be specified. This lets us invoke it without using parentheses, making the function look more natural.
  • Specified and Default Arguments – Method overloading is an alternative in Kotlin. A function could have had named parameters, which let us call it with its parameters in any order we want. Using named variables can also increase code readability. You may read it here.
  • Trailing Lambdas – If we send a lambda as the last argument to a function, we can pass it outside the function. More information on this issue may be found in the article Sample Consisted to Kotlin Default & Named Arguments.
  • Sluggish Initialization – Kotlin includes support for lazy object initialization. More on that intriguing feature may be found in our article Slow Initialization in Kotlin.

Java vs. Kotlin 

In developing code, Java adheres to the traditional practice of verbosity. However, as a sophisticated programming language, Kotlin follows the notion of conciseness.

Because Kotlin is noted for its brevity, we can dramatically decrease the quantity of code, leading to fewer program codes than the Java equivalent. As a result, Kotlin is more understandable and more minor error-prone.

  1. Null Security – Null values can be assigned to objects in Java. As a result, when a person of a null When a reference is accessed, the most infamous Null Pointer Exception is thrown. However, we cannot set these null values as default in Kotlin. As a result, Kotlin provides superior code stability by implementing null safety.
  2. Extension Functions – We should inherit the classes and override the methods in Java. However, Kotlin includes the capability of extension functions, which do not necessitate inheriting the class.
  3. Static vs. Strict Typing – Java is a typed language, meaning all variables were declared with such a type when they were created. Kotlin, on the other hand, is a strongly typed programming language that can determine the variable type depending on the assignment value.
  4. Astute Casting – The programmer must check the variable’s type in Java. And cast it by the operation. However, Kotlin includes a clever casting capability that the compiler manages automatically.
  5. Functional Programming – Java is an object Language of programming, but Kotlin combines the best of both worlds. In Kotlin, for example, we may utilize Lambda expressions alongside inline functions, which is impossible in Java. Kotlin also supports additional functional programming elements such as delegates & extension functions.
  6. Support for Coroutines – Java allows you to conduct long-running, CPU-intensive processes in the background by generating many threads. Managing many lines, on the other hand, is a difficult task. Kotlin, on either hand, supports coroutines, which can halt the operation of blocked threads at a specific point.
  7. Sealed Classes – Kotlin made use of the feature of sealed classes. The type of an object would be used in a single sentence in Kotlin. In contrast, pattern matching for the switch statement in Java is only available as a preview functionality in Java 17.
  8. Time to Compile – Java development time is 15-20% quicker than Kotlin compilation time. However, when it comes to the development lifecycle to assemble compilation, Kotlin performs similarly to Java.
  9. Compatibility with Platforms – Java compiles to JVM bytecode and JavaScript utilizing the Nashorn & Rhino JS Engines. Kotlin, on the other hand, enables not only JVM and JavaScript and also native code generation. We may also utilize the Kotlin Cross-platform framework to derive a single common codebase compatible with all platforms.

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Application Examples

As we all know, Java is the most versatile JVM programming language. As a result, it is frequently preferred for a wide range of projects, including applications & backend applications Kotlin, on the other hand, is a widely-used programming language that is also the most popular available on Android development.

Kotlin and Java are both object-oriented programming languages. However, they serve various functions. Kotlin is utilized to create Android applications, whereas Java is primarily used to develop enterprise applications. We’ve discussed the differences between Java & Kotlin in this part.

Java versus Kotlin

James Gosling created Java, the most popular object-oriented programming language. We may use Java to construct many apps, including desktop applications, enterprise solutions, cloud-based applications, and web-based applications. It is typically used to create the backend. When it concerns Android app development, developers’ first choice is Java. It should be noted that Android is built in Java.

Why is Java used?

Although it is no longer the only officially approved language for Android development and Java is far from the sole option for web programming, it keeps up with the competition. And since that isn’t just due to its age, let’s look at the benefits Java does have to offer. Another advantage of using Java is it’s very scalable, resilient, and secure. This is why it is so commonly utilized.

  1. It is simple to learn.
  2. It is a highly effective development tool.
  3. It is available for free.

Pros 

  • The JVM manages memory automatically.
  • It is safe.
  • Platform agnostic.
  • Extremely safe
  • Provides extensive community support.

Cons

  • Java syntax is sophisticated and extensive.
  • Complex and lengthy code.
  • Its performance is mediocre.
  • Java Code Example
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Kotlin

Kotlin, like Java, is an object-oriented language developed by JetBrains. It is lightweight, simple, straightforward, and less verbose, which is particularly useful for building callbacks, data types, and getter/setter functions. It is regarded as the second dominant language for developing apps by Google LLC. It is the most common programming language used by Android developers.

Why is Kotlin used?

Kotlin is a programming language that is modern, concise, compatible, and secure. It allows you to create a server-side application more productively. It is interoperable with the Java ecosystem since it will enable us to use our favorite frameworks and libraries. Additionally, it saves time and energy. It supports new JVM features like string concatenation through invoked dynamically.

KMM project performance or exception handling has been improved.

Path(“dir”) / “file.txt” experimental JDK path extensions

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Pros

  • It works with current Java code.
  • It is compatible with Java.
  • It strengthens team productivity.
  • It is simple to maintain.
  • It is more stable and less buggy.
  • Provides a comprehensive API for app development.

Cons

  • Kotlin’s compilation performance is slow.
  • This has a small development base.
  • Memory use is high.

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FeatureKotlinJava
OriginDeveloped by JetBrainsDeveloped by Sun Microsystems (now Oracle),
Type of LanguageConcise, expressive, and fully interoperable with JavaStatically typed, verbose syntax
Null SafetyBuilt-in null safety featuresNull safety is not inherent.
Extension FunctionsSupports extension functionsThere is no direct support for extension functions.
Smart CastsSmart casts for automatic type castingIt requires explicit casting in many cases.
Default ArgumentsAllows functions to have default argumentsDefault arguments are not supported.
CoroutinesSupports native coroutines for asynchronous programming.Lacks built-in support for coroutines
InteroperabilityFully interoperable with Java, you can use Java libraries seamlessly.Interoperability, but with some limitations
Static MembersThere is no concept of static members.Utilizes static members
Lambda ExpressionsSimilar syntax for lambdasIntroduced lambda expressions in Java 8
PropertiesSupports concise property syntaxUses getter and setter methods for properties.
Type InferenceEnhanced type inference systemRequires explicit type declarations
Smart CastsProvides smart casts for type checking.Requires explicit casting in many scenarios.
Functional ProgrammingEmphasizes functional programming principlesFunctional programming features were introduced gradually.
Tool SupportGood support in IntelliJ IDEA and Android StudioA broad range of IDEs are available, including IntelliJ IDEA, Eclipse, etc.
Community AdoptionGaining popularity rapidly, especially in Android development.Long-established, widely used in enterprises and various domains
Official Android LanguageOfficially supported languages for Android developmentTraditionally used for Android development

End note – 

This paper compares and contrasts Java & Kotlin, two popular Java programming languages. Java: Checkmarking Exceptions – Java enables its programmers to ensure more durable code. Kotlin: Data Types – Kotlin provides data classes by introducing the data keyword with an in-class declaration (made to hold some data). It includes functions like the range method, which lets us build and loop over a range value, as shorthand lambdas, which allow us to refer to a single piece of evidence inside a function that uses the abbreviation variable. The language also supports lazy object initiation, which reduces code verbosity and mistake proneness.

In Kotlin, we may use Lambda expression alongside inline functions, something Java does not allow. The language also supports coroutines, which can bring stalled threads to a halt at a precise location. In Java, the developer should examine the type of a variable’s values and convert it appropriately. Both Kotlin and Java are JVM programming languages. However, they serve different purposes. Kotlin is utilized to develop Android apps, but Java is mainly used for business apps. Java development takes 15-20% less time than Kotlin compilation. We could also use the Kotlin Cross-platform framework to create a shared codebase that is cross-platform compatible. To be Job-ready, check out our Job Oriented Courses today!

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