Manual Testing Interview Questions and Answers(For 2023-24)

Testing is critical to the success of every product or software. Automation Testing should see in the majority of scenarios, but not all of them. It's where Manual Testing comes into effect, and it plays a critical part in the software development process.
Manual Testing Interview Questions and Answers

Interview Questions and Answers for Manual Software Testing(For 2023-24)

Testing is critical to the success of every product or software. Automation Testing should see in the majority of scenarios, but not all of them. It’s where Manual Testing comes into effect, and it plays a critical part in the software development process.


What are manual testing interview questions?

Manual testing is a process of testing software using actual user inputs. Manual testing involves interviewing users, observing their interactions with the software, and recording their feedback. Manual testing interview questions help you assess how well a user interface functions and identifies any potential issues. We provided QA interview questions with answers below. So you can easily crack the interview with the help of these software testing interview questions.

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How to answer manual testing scenario-based questions?

Typically, manual testing interview questions ask you to answer specific scenarios that involve using the software in a certain way. To answer these questions, you need to know how the software works and what users might do when interacting with it. You can also refer to the manual or user guide if you’re not sure about something specific.

The manual Testing Questions will help you understand this area by giving you a carefully chosen list of manual testing interview questions and answers:


What is software testing?

Software testing is a verification process that ensures that a system meets the needs of the business. It assesses a system’s compatibility, precision, completeness, performance, and other characteristics. The world standard for research principles is ANSI/IEEE 1059.


When are you expected to stop testing?

When the testing team has completed the following milestones, the testing activity will come to an end.


Test case execution

After the last bug fix, the debugging process ends with the satisfactory completion of a complete testing cycle.


Testing deadline

If there are no critical and high priority defects in the system at the end of the validation stage, the validation will be considered closed.


Code Coverage(CC) ratio

It’s the amount of code that’s hidden behind automatic tests. If the team meets the desired degree of code coverage (CC) ratio, the validation will end.


Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) rate

The mean time failure MTBF is the total time that a system or product works before it fails. This measurement unit only considers operating time between failures and ignores repair periods, ensuring the item is fixed and functional again. MTBF statistics are often used to estimate the likelihood of a single unit failing within a specific timeframe.



What does software testing mean by validation and verification?

Verification is a method of software testing that ensures product development follows requirements and follows standard development procedures. The process includes the following procedures:

● Inspections

● Demos

● Walk-throughs

● Reviews

Validation is a method of ensuring that the developed product is free of bugs and performs as expected. The following operations are carried out:

● Non-functional testing

● Functional testing


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Explain the static testing? 

Static checking is a white-box testing method in which developers use a checklist to search their code for bugs. Static testing may begin without the application or program having been completed. Since static testing covers more fields with less time than dynamic testing, it is more cost-effective.

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Define Black-box testing.

It is a standard software testing technique that allows testers to evaluate the software’s features about the market specifications. The software is considered a black box and is validated from the end-user viewpoint.


What does a test plan include? 

A test plan keeps a record of all possible testing activities to ensure a high-quality product. It collects information from product descriptions, specifications, and use case documents.

It includes the following items:

● Goals for testing

● Deliverables

● Entrance and exit criteria

● The reason for testing

● The scope of the tests

● The environment

● Frame testing

● Risk elements


What is meant by test coverage?

Test coverage is a consistency measure representing the proportion of a product’s testing that has been performed. It is suitable for functional as well as non-functional testing. This metric is used to fill in the gaps in the test cases.


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Is 100 percent research coverage possible? What steps will you take to ensure that happens?

Any product cannot test thoroughly. You will, however, get closer by following the steps below.

Set a hard limit on the following:

● The number of bugs found 

● Percentage of successful test cases

Set a red flag if:

● The testing budget has been reduced

● Deadlines have been missed

Set a green flag if:

● Test cases cover the full functionality.

● All critical and big bugs must be marked as CLOSED.


Explain integration testing and unit testing?

Unit testing is also known as a module or component testing. Developers often test specific units or components to ensure that they are functioning correctly. Integration testing, on the other hand, validates how often two or more software units interact.

Integration can validate in three ways:

● Big Bang approach

● Bottom-up approach

● Top-down approach


At any stage, can we perform system testing?

No, only after all modules are in place and working should system testing start. However, before UAT (user acceptance testing), it can be done.


How does the test driver vary from the test stub?

A test driver is a piece of code that invokes a software component that is being tested. It’s suitable for testing that’s done from the bottom up.

A test stub is a dummy program designed to complete its functionality in combination with an application. It’s useful for testing that follows a top-down strategy.


Agile testing, and why is it necessary?

Agile testing is a product testing method that assesses software from the perspective of the user. It is advantageous because it does not enable the development team to complete coding before beginning QA. Instead, coding and testing are closely tied. It can, however, require ongoing consumer interaction.


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What do you know about data flow testing?

It’s a kind of white-box testing method. Data flow testing focuses on creating test cases covering control flow paths based on variable definitions and their applications in modules. It anticipates the following features in test cases:

● The module’s input 

● The control flow direction for testing 

● A pair of appropriate variable definitions and their use

● The test case’s expected result

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How does the end-to-end testing work?

End-to-end testing is a technique for performing experiments that cover the possible flow of an application from beginning to end. End-to-end tests are used to identify program dependencies and ensure that the correct input is transmitted between different software modules and subsystems.


A server-class application hosted in the cloud has a 99.99 percent chance of remaining up and running for six months without crashing. What test would you run to assess this kind of situation?

Testing for reliability

 
when a bug turns up during testing, what will you do?

When a bug happens, we should take action outlined below.

● Additional testing should be carried out to make sure the problem is well identified.

● We should even run a few more tests to ensure different inputs don’t cause the issue.

● If we’re sure of the bug’s full scope, we can add specifics and report it.


Why is it impossible to test a program thoroughly?

Here are the two main reasons why testing a program entirely is impossible.

● Software specifications are often subjective, resulting in a variety of interpretations.

● A software program can have an excessive number of inputs, outputs, and direction combinations.


How do you test a product if the requirements are yet to be frozen?

If a product’s requirements are unavailable, a test plan based on assumptions about the product can create. However, we can make sure that the test strategy includes all of the assumptions.


If a product is in the production stage and one of its modules gets updated, then is it necessary to go for testing?

It is recommended that regression testing be performed and also tests for the other modules. Finally, device testing can be performed by the QA.


How are you going to solve the problems of lack of adequate testing documentation?

If standard documents, including the System Requirement Specification or the Feature Description Document, are unavailable, QAs will depend on the following references.

● Screenshots

● The previous application version

● Wireframes

Discussing with the developer and the business analyst is another trustworthy process. It facilitates the resolving of questions and creates a channel for adding meaning to the requirements. The emails shared may also be used as a testing reference.

Another tool for testing the application’s key feature is smoke testing. It will expose some of the application’s most basic bugs. If none of these options works, we will use the previous experience to test the application.

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Does retesting vary from regression testing?

The differences are as follows. 

● We retest to ensure that the defects have been fixed. On the other hand, regression testing means that different parts of the application do not affect the fixing of a bug. Regression test cases ensure that any of all modules work correctly.

● Regression checking ensures that passed test cases are executed again. Retesting, on the other hand, involves the execution of failed test cases.

● Retesting takes precedence over regression. However, in some situations, these are carried out simultaneously.

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List the leading software testing challenges.

Some of the primary software testing problems are as follows:

● Skills in time management

● Inability to recognize the application due to a lack of standard documentation

● A lack of qualified testers

● Recognizing the requirements: Testers must have excellent listening and comprehension skills to communicate application requirements to consumers.

● The ability to decide when to stop testing

● Use an optimized number of test cases to test the entire application

● The ability to choose which tests to do.


What are the different types of functional testing?

The following forms of validation techniques include functional testing:

● Smoke testing

● Sanity testing

● Unit testing

● UAT

● Interface testing

● System testing

● Regression testing

● Integration testing


What are functional test cases and non-functional test cases?

●      Functional testing: It is the process of determining whether or not software or application is ‘functional.’ It tests the behaviour of the software in the test. A software specification, also known as a requirement specification, is used as a guide to testing the application based on the client’s requirements.

●      Non-functional testing: In computing, a reliable application performs smoothly and reliably under all conditions expected by the customer. Testing these criteria is extremely important in terms of quality. This kind of test is called non-functional testing.


Explain the Difference between Bug, Defect, and Error.

A coding slip is shown as an error. An error is found in an error identified by a hand tester, and The defect recognized by the development team is called a bug. When a built-in code fails, it’s a functional failure.


How do severity and priority relate to each other?

●      Severity: It reflects a bug’s gravity/depth. It describes the point of view of the application.

● Priority: determines the first bug to be fixed. It determines the view of the user.

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What does the percentage of defect detection mean in software testing?

A type of test parameter is the defect detection percentage (DDP). It shows the effectiveness of a test procedure by calculating the ratio of defects found before delivery, confirmed by customers after release.

Let’s assume, for instance, that during the test cycle, the QA found 70 defects and 20 more reported after release by the consumer. DDP is 70/(70 + 20) = 72.1 % in this case.

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In the context of software testing, what does defect removal efficiency imply?

Defect removal efficiency is one of the testing methods. It is a measure of the development team’s efficiency in solving problems before release.

The proportion of defects is calculated to determine the number of issues ultimately.

E.g., 75 defects during the trial period were found, while 62 were fixed during the measurement by the development team. The DRE is 82.6 percent of 62/75.


In software testing, what is the age of a defect?

Deficiency age is when the tester found out the defect and the day the developer fixed it.

Remember the following points when calculating the age of a defect: 

● The birthday of a defect is the day to which the development team is assigned and accepted.

● The eliminated problems are beyond the scope.

● In hours or days, the age can be both.

● The end time is when the defect is verified and closed, not just when the development team fixed it.


How do you perform automated testing in your environment?

Automation testing is the method of automating the execution of tests. It greatly decreases the need for human action. QTP, Selenium, and WinRunner are some of the test automation methods we use. Testing methods aid in the expediting of testing activities. These tools allow you to create test scripts to validate the application and produce test reports automatically.


Is there any difference between quality assurance, quality control, and software testing? If so, what is it?

Quality Assurance (QA) is a structured and organized method of controlling the quality of the material used to create a high-quality product. QA keeps track of the test results and improves the procedure to meet the requirements.

Quality Control (QC) is concerned with the product’s quality. QC not only detects defects but also recommends improvements. As a result, QC implements a QA-defined process. The research team is in charge of quality control.

The method of ensuring that a product developed by developers meets the needs of its customers is known as software testing. Testing aims to detect flaws to ensure that they are fixed. As a result, it helps preserve the product’s consistency for delivery to the consumer.


What is a Silk Test, and why should you use it?

Some information about the Silk test tool is listed here:

● A professional tool is developed to evaluate an application for regression and functionality.

● We use it to analyze Windows-based, Java-based, web-based, and standard client/server applications.

● Silk Test helps with preparing and managing the test plan to provide direct database access and field validation.


Is there any difference between bug leakage and bug release?

Bug Leakage: Bug leakage occurs where a bug is found by the end-user/customer and is not detected by the testing team while the app is being tested. It’s a defect in the application that isn’t seen by the tester but ultimately discovered by the consumer or end-user.

Bug Release: A bug release occurs when a specific version of the software is distributed with a list of reported bugs (s). The severity/priority of these bugs usually is minimal. When a software company can tolerate bugs in published software but not the time or cost of repairing them in that version, it is done.


Difference between performance testing and monkey testing?

The performance tests check the system’s speed, scalability, and stability. The results are defined by achieving response time, throughput, and resource use levels that meet the project or product performance targets.

Monkey testing is a software test methodology where the user tests the application using random inputs, tests the application’s behaviour.


What is exploratory testing?

Exploratory testing is a software test approach in which tests think about the test design and test implementation simultaneously. It is a practical approach, in other words, where testers are more involved in planning than in the execution of the tests.


What is meant by system testing?

The black-box system test is used on a fully integrated system, where it tests the system’s compliance with the requirement.


What are the benefits of test reports?

Test results will allow us to determine the current status and quality of a project, which will help stakeholders and consumers to take appropriate action. The complete test results documentation will assist in the analysis of various phases of the project.


What is meant by latent defect?

A latent defect in an application/software is a hidden defect that the customer cannot detect. But this would not cause the application to fail, so the conditions will never be fulfilled.


Describe white Box Testing, Gray box testing, and Black Box Testing?

●      Black-box Testing: The method of black-box testing is based on specifications and requirements. It does not require knowledge of the internal process, structure, or implementation of the tested software.

●      White Box Testing: This is focused on internal paths, code structure, and the implementation of software. It needs complete and detailed knowledge of programming.

●      Gray Box Testing (GBT): This is another testing method to look at the test box to see how it is applied. Then the box is closed, and black box testing is used.

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What are the types of defects?

Wrong, missing, and extra are the three kinds of defects.

●      Wrong: These defects appear as a result of improperly applied specifications.

●      Missing: It’s used to describe missing things, including a specification that hasn’t been implemented or a consumer requirement that hasn’t been adequately noted.

●      Extra: This is an additional service that was not entered by the end-user into the product. It’s always a change from the specifications, but it might be a feature that the consumer required. However, since it differs from the user’s requirements, it is classified as a defect.


What is exploratory testing?

Exploratory testing is the simultaneous design and execution of tests against an application. The tester uses domain expertise and testing experience to predict where and under what conditions the device might act unexpectedly in this type of testing.


When should exploratory testing be performed?

Until the software is released, exploratory testing is carried out as the last check. It’s a different kind of regression testing than the automated type.


What exactly is use-case testing? 

The use case is used to identify and execute the functional requirements of an application from beginning to end, and Use Case Testing is the methodology used to do so.

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Difference between a test stub and a test driver?

Both a driver and a stub are categories of test harness used to simulate a module’s testing environment. They are not used in the leading software and are mainly used for testing.


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Conclusion

You must be confident when giving the interview. If you don’t know the answer to any of the questions, a clear no is preferred to a random non-answer and unnecessary details. Those that are straightforward and frank are favoured over those who pretend to be experts.

Moreover, wait to give out the information until you are asked. The interviewer is more focused on getting to know you as a technical person.

In a manual research interview, these are the most often asked questions. Share this with your peers or someone else who is preparing for a software tester interview.

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