Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers

If you are going to raise the bar of your technical skills by working as a software testing professional, then get ready to face the intricate questions in your interview. While you appear for the interview, you are most likely to face the software testing interview questions.
Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers

If you are going to raise the bar of your technical skills by working as a software testing professional, then get ready to face the intricate questions in your interview. While you appear for the interview, you are most likely to face the software testing interview questions. If you are unaware of what questions you will encounter, you are at the right place.



Start your interview preparations with this software testing interview questions and answers, and ensure your position. Along with these questions, the skill to present your answers to impresses the interviewer is what you need to adapt in yourself! So let’s get started!

What is software testing?

The software testing method makes sure that there is no defect in the product and checks whether the actual software product matches the expected requirement or not. Evaluate one or more properties of interest using manual and automated tools. The main purpose of software testing is to identify errors and gaps. It also means the verification of the Application Under test. Testing software is introduced to the audience through software testing. Software bugs can be expensive and can cause human loss so testing is very helpful. Test also helps you to save money if you test IT projects on time. It also removes the risks and problems earlier. The quality of the product is an essential requirement and it will ensure that a good quality product is delivered to customers. After testing the product will give the customer satisfaction. 

In a single-phase software, testing is done but testing techniques and activities were not confirmed. In terms of usability, correctness, and completeness testing measure the overall quality. We could use the metrics from the previous projects to estimate the amount of re-testing. For the similar projects there is a discussion with the development team.


Engineering Software Testing Techniques

If you plan to build a career as a software developer, you must be technically skilled. 

The following are crucial tactics in software engineering:

Unit Testing: Programmers use this fundamental technique for software testing while doing unit tests on program components. You will come to know which code is functioning properly or which one is not.

Integration testing: Integration testingwill make sure that components and functions of the software are operated together. 

System testing: For verifying the compliance of integrated software the tester executes test cases along with specifications.


What are the different types of software testing? 

Ans. There are different types of software testing each with specific objectives and strategies:

Acceptance testing: Confirm that the system overall functions as planned. Verifying that software functions or components work together through integration testing.

Unit testing: Unit testing verifies that each piece of software operates as expected. The smallest measurable element of an application is called a unit.

Functional testing: The process of verifying how well a function works by simulating business scenarios. Function verification is frequently done via black-box testing.

Performance testing: Analyzing the software’s responsiveness to various workloads. 

Regression testing: When there is limited time for a full regression test then to verify menus, and functions sanity testing is used at the surface level. This will check new features and functionality. 

Stress testing: Tests to determine how much stress a system can withstand before failing. it is regarded as a form of non-functional testing.

Usability testing: Usability testing verifies how well a user can execute a job using a system or web application.


What can be automated with software testing?

Ans. When manual testing becomes tiresome and time-consuming, automated testing can be used to test greater volumes of software. Software applications can have test scripts executed automatically, which frees up time and resources and enables businesses to test effectively at a cheaper cost.

Continuous testing: Each piece of software a developer produces undergoes this kind of automated testing. It provides early-stage code validation and error identification. The test automation is connected with the deployment process and carried out at every level of development, from the early phases of software development through the deployment of software, to make the process continuous and quick.

Service virtualization: Certain test environments may not exist at the early stages of software development, which makes it difficult for teams to test effectively and quickly. Service virtualization can close this gap because it simulates under-development services and systems. As a result, businesses are encouraged to create test plans before the full product is created. The additional advantage of employing virtualization is the ability to reuse, deploy, or modify testing scenarios without affecting the original production system.

Defect and bug tracking: Automation testing is excellent for finding issues, including memory leaks, that manual testing occasionally misses. These flaws can be discovered more quickly because the automated tests are run several times in a short amount of time. Regression testing is carried out as part of automation testing following each build to make sure that previously discovered bugs don’t surface again. Another benefit of automated software testing is that it notifies developers right away if a test fails, as opposed to making them wait for the results of manual testing. This is particularly crucial for products that undergo frequent updates.

Metrics and reporting: The automation architecture relies heavily on both reporting and metrics. Automated testing incorporates metrics using cutting-edge technologies and analytics so that they may be shared with everyone in the form of test results and status reports. Instead of a single developer reviewing the results, as is the case with manual testing, this enables complete teams to assess the health of a project and collaborate amongst various departments.

Management of configurations. All test assets, including code, design documentation, requirements, and test cases, are extremely visible when software testing is automated. This gives centralized management where all teams across the organization can track and collaborate during different phases of development.


What are the ways to choose different types of software testing?

Ans. As you can see, Software testing is available in different types and sizes. You cannot interchangeably employ each type because they each offer distinct feedback. Each sort of testing also has unique prices and difficulties that go along with it.

How can you choose among the various testing options in a way that maximizes test coverage, guaranteeing you can ship high-quality software while using your resources most effectively, given that your team and organization have limited resources?


What is the difference between static software testing and dynamic testing?

Ans. The fundamental distinctions between static and dynamic testing are outlined below:

Static Testing

Executing any code helps in finding bugs

Done at the time of the verification process

A cost-effective way of testing

Examples: Reviewing, walkthrough, inspection

Dynamic Testing

To discover the outcomes of conducting tests, code execution is necessary.

Carried out as part of the validation process

A little pricey

Examples: Unit testing, system testing, and integration tests, for instance.

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During the software development process identify the typical issues.

Ans. Here are a few typical issues that arise during the software development process:

  • Inadequate demands
  • Unattainable timetables
  • Insufficient testing
  • By integrating additional features
  • Communication problems


What are the different types of functional testing?

Ans. Below are some types of functional testing:

  • Smoke testing
  • Sanity testing
  • Integration testing
  • Regression testing
  • Localization testing
  • User acceptance testing

Non-functional testing:

  • Performance testing Usability Testing
  • Security Testing
  • Installation testing
  • Recovery testing


What exactly do you mean when you say “quality assurance”?

Ans. Quality control is used to increase client satisfaction, organizational capability, and productivity. It is a process used to ensure a given standard of quality when developing items.

QA keeps an eye on the project development process. To meet expectations, it also monitors the process outcomes. It aids in avoiding issues when delivering goods or providing services to clients as well as errors and flaws in manufactured goods.


What steps are taken to fix problems when testing software?

Ans. During software testing, we can fix problems by using:

Record: the flaws are noted and documented.

Control: A method for managing issues is found.

Report: The development team is informed of the flaws.


Describe the factors you take into account before selecting automation tools for the AUT.

Ans. Before selecting automation tools for the AUT, keep the following in mind:

  • Test results
  • Application scope
  • Level of complexity
  • Application constancy
  • Technical Possibilities
  • Execution in a variety of settings
  • Scripts for automation that can be reused


What is a test log?

Ans. A test log is a chronological listing of significant information regarding the performance of test cases. It gives specific details about how each test that was run to verify the software’s quality, functionality, and performance was successful.


How will you differentiate between User Acceptance Testing and System Testing?

User Acceptance Testing or UAT is the process of testing the product’s viability through a long series of tests that are specific to testify to the needs of its respective users.

On the other hand system, testing is finding the errors and defects in the process of the complete system testing. The whole system is put into testing and thus also known as end-to-end testing. In this type of testing, it’s the application that suffers from the beginning to the end.


How will you resolve the issues faced during the system testing?

There are three main steps in which it’s possible to tackle the issue faced by the user. The steps can be stated in the underlying pointers.

●      Track the record: Jot down all the problems faced. Create a log and handle the problems that came across the system.

●      Report: After trying to handle the if you still face the same issue, report it to a higher level authority or manager.

● Regulate: Present the issue that you have encountered in the management process precisely.


How will you define mutation testing?

The technique to identify whether the set of test cases or test data is useful by the intentional introduction of coding alterations or bug changes. Additionally, these are tested with original test data or test cases to check if any bugs or errors are detected.


What are the types of defects found in system testing?

There are three primary defects which can be stated as follows

● Wrong: These are the defects that are occurred due to incorrect requirements fed in the system and its respective implementation.

● Missing: The type of defect used to specify missing things. This is applicable when the specifications are not mentioned or implemented.

● Extra: The additional facility incorporated into the product that the end customer did not ask for. It may vary from the specifics but may be desired by the customer.

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What do you know about risk-based testing?

When you prioritize the tests based on the risks, it’s termed risk-based testing. It relies on the detailed risk analysis that distinguishes the risks based on the priorities. The greater the priority, the faster are the risks resolved.


How will you define acceptance testing?

Acceptance testing is the process done to enable the user or the customer to decide whether to accept a software product or not. The role acceptance testing is to rectify whether the software satisfies the agreed acceptance criteria. The overall function of acceptance testing is to check the user acceptability of the software.


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What does software testing verification and validation involve?

Verification: The method uses static analysis. Testing is done in this case without running any code. Examples are Reviews, inspections, and walkthroughs.

Validation: In a dynamic analysis process testing is done by running a code. Techniques used in testing that are functional and non-functional are examples.

Under the V model, the development and QA processes are carried out. It begins with the requirement phase and does not have a separate phase. The validation and verification actions are complementary.


What is the foundation of the acceptance plan?

Ans. The following inputs are used to prepare the acceptance document.

Requirement document: The project’s requirements document outlines everything that is required from the clients’ perspective.

Customer input: This might come from conversations, casual conversations, emails, etc.

Project plan: You can conclude your acceptance test using the project plan that the project manager has created.


What exactly do you mean by confirmation and regression testing?

Ans. Regression Testing: Regression testing is a sort of software testing used to make sure that recent code changes haven’t negatively impacted already-existing features.

Confirmation testing: The flaw is notified when a test fails due to it. The flaw is then addressed in a new version of the software, which is then submitted. Confirmation testing, or re-testing, is what this is.


What does website load testing entail?

Ans. A user must send a “request” to a website’s server to access it, and the server will then respond with the webpage you are trying to view. Quality assurance engineers and automation engineers only need to multiply the number of responses sent to simulate various traffic loads when load testing a website. The reaction of the web server to the surge in virtual users can then be evaluated. This is used to identify server capacity and performance issues.


What does “defect cascading” mean?

Ans. A flaw that is brought on by another defect is known as a defect cascade. One fault occurrence causes the other. If a flaw is present at any step but is not detected, move on to the next one undetected. The number of flaws will rise as a result of this.

Give us an example to help us comprehend this.


You are creating a web page’s login module:

Ans. Phase 1- A flaw that goes undiscovered allows you to leave the cellphone number empty while developing the Register User Module for logging in.

Phase 2 – With username and password create a login form. The user’s registered mobile number will receive an OTP, which serves as the password.


What is End-to-end testing? 

Ans. Testing a software system end-to-end is known as end-to-end testing. The program is tested by the tester in an end-user-like manner. To test a desktop application, for instance, the tester would install the program as the user would, launch it, use the program as intended, and then check the behavior. 

End-to-end testing differs significantly from other types of testing that are more isolated, like unit testing. End-to-end testing involves testing the software together with all of its integrations and dependencies, including databases, networks, file systems, and other third-party services.


What is the main difference between black-box, white-box, and grey-box testing?

Ans. Black-box testing for software testing: In black-box testing, the system is solely examined in terms of how it behaves from the outside; internal software operations are not taken into account. The black-box test’s only drawback is this. Both system testing and acceptance testing employ it.

Software testing white-box testing: A white-box test is a procedure for evaluating a program that considers its internal operations. Both integration testing and unit testing make use of it.

Software testing with gray-box testing: In the software testing process, a gray-box testing technique is a combination of a black-box and a white-box testing technique. With the help of this method, you can test a piece of software or an application while just knowing a portion of its internal workings.


Describe the software testing concepts of test cases, test scripts, and test scenarios.

Ans. Test Case: It will describe the specific idea without the details of the exact steps to be taken. The testing in this may vary with time and it will not mention the ways to apply code. Test case flexibility is good and bad. The tester must have good skills to use the program.

Test Scenario: When using the programa test scenario is a description of an objective a user might face. It will offer the information to complete the testing and also offer flexibility to the tester. There are some benefits and drawbacks of flexibility when it comes to the testing scenario. 

Test Scripts: It has the steps to describe how to use the program. Scripts help to bridge that gap. To consider it tested the test idea will be covered.


Describe the test plan. What does it consist of?

Ans. A test plan is a document that helps to sets the scope, approach, and schedule of testing activities. It will include the overall objective of the testing effort and outline how testing is conducted. It will test the features, applications, and components. The objective of the test plan is to produce documentation. 

The following information must be included in a test plan:

  • Test Approach
  • Test Purpose
  • Test Plan
  • Purpose of Testing
  • Criteria for Exit/Suspension
  • Resource Management
  • Deliverables for test


Give a summary of each of the common software testing tools and frameworks you list.

Ans. Selenium: The test suites you must run on a web browser are automated by Selenium, a web browser automation tool.

Protractor: Protractor is a framework for end-to-end testing of Angular and AngularJS apps. Protractor performs tests on your application while it is active in a real browser and engages with it in a user-like manner.

Cypress: Cypress is a cutting-edge front-end testing tool designed for the present-day web. It shares similarities with Selenium and Protractor but differs from them in terms of architecture.

Jasmine: You may create behavior-driven tests using this open-source JavaScript testing framework.

JUnit and NUnit: Unit testing frameworks for the Java and C# programming languages are JUnit and NUnit, respectively.

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What do software testing errors entail?

Ans. A system fault that prevents the planned activity from being carried out is referred to as a flaw. When it comes to spotting flaws, testing is crucial. Since faults can be detected during the entire development process, testing needs to start early. As illustrated in the accompanying graphic, flaws are split into three primary categories:

Wrong: It implies improper requirement implementation, which is inappropriate. This flaw arises from a discrepancy between the requirements and what was anticipated.

Missing: This suggests that a specification has not been followed through on or that client demand has not been accurately captured.

Extra: In this instance, a requirement built within the product that was not supplied by the end user is what is to blame for the problem.


What do you mean by latent and concealed defects?

Ans. Latent Defect: Defects that are there but have not yet been brought to light due to the absence of the prerequisite circumstances are known as latent defects. It affects the entire software development process, including all pre-production testing and extended testing, and is classified as a systematic fault. Latent flaws become visible when users carry out a certain job in an uncommon or rare circumstance or when there are no typical scenarios present.

Masked Defect: Because another fault prevents that section of the code from being executed, these defects have not yet led to a failure. It can only be found when the user performs a certain operation that exposes the fault that is hiding it.

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Can you describe software testing sanity checks?

Ans. A subset of regression testing is referred known as “sanity testing.” The change of code is not affected by the Sanity testing. A sanity test is performed after receiving the software build to make sure that the code changes are functioning properly. This testing serves as a checkpoint to determine whether the build can continue with more testing. Sanity testing puts less emphasis on thorough testing and more on verifying the application’s functionality.

Features

It is a subset of regression testing and focuses on a more narrowly defined area of the program.

  • The procedure is not recorded.
  • Sanity checks are frequently spontaneous.
  • In this method, only a few capabilities are rigorously examined.
  • This task is often carried out by a tester.


Define golden bugs and latent bugs. 

 Ans. A latent bug that has been present in the system since earlier revisions or releases is known as a latent bug. It is a bug with low priority. It includes bugs that are still active or visible.

A bug known as a “golden bug” affects the main module and manifests itself in every version or release. Due to the possibility of impacting the system’s essential functionality, this problem has a high priority.


What are the types of acceptance testing most commonly used?

The acceptance testing is divided into the following types

● User Acceptance Testing: This testing is performed to check the user acceptance once the product testing is done. The test begins after the testers are testing the product. The process is to check whether the product satisfies the user needs, requirements, and business processes where the product will be used.

● Operational Acceptance Testing: The procedure is done after the user acceptance testing. This step is performed before the product release to check the functioning of the product.

● Contract Acceptance Testing: The contract of the product is drafted based on the testing criteria. The system is tested against these criteria, and the satisfying aspects are drafted in the contract.

● Regulation Acceptance Testing: The government has made specific regulations for each product. In regulation acceptance testing, the software is tested to check whether it satisfies these government norms or not.

● Alpha Testing: It is performed in the development surrounding before releasing the software to the customer. Alpha testers feed the input, and developers fix the bugs to enhance the quality of the product.

● Beta Testing: The testing performed in the customer environment. The feedback of the customer is recorded, and necessary changes are made.


How will you describe the Application Programming Interface?

Application Programming Interface or abbreviated as API is the formal set of calls and formalities to access the supporting system or network referenced by an application program.


Which are the two essential types of web testing?

The two essential types of web testing are performance testing and security testing.

The testing technique that focuses more on the system’s quality attributes is measured like responsiveness, speed, scalability, reliability, etc. The performance testing helps improve the quality of the product before its release through the parameters mentioned above.

While the security testing relies on saving the data from intruders who can harness the system.


What are the effective procedures for resolving problems during testing?

Ans. The steps listed below can help in problem-solving during testing:

Record: Keep tabs on any issues that crop up and deal with them.

Report: Let higher-level supervisors know about the problems.

Control: Create a procedure for handling problems.


What function do testing services have in the creation of software?

Ans. Various software development approaches make use of software testing at various points. Software development mostly uses the Waterfall and Agile techniques.

Requirements are first acquired in a standard waterfall software development process. The software’s design and development are then guided by a specification document that is generated based on the original document. After the full software system has been developed, the testers conduct the testing at the end of the software development life cycle.

In brief iterations, an agile software development approach operates. As the software is being produced, you test it simultaneously. Developers create a modest capability by the specifications. Future development is guided by the testers’ testing and customer input.


What do beta and alpha testing mean?

Ans. Before making the product available to actual users, alpha testing is carried out to find any issues. It is carried out internally and tested by a team of independent testers as well as occasionally by a representative end-user audience on the developer’s side. It will include the white box and the black box testing.

End customers who are not employees of the company and who are neither programmers, software engineers, nor testers carry out beta testing. It will examine the Reliability, security, and robustness and also employ black-box testing.


Why there is a huge demand for Test Automation?

Ans. Many factors contribute to the high need for test automation. First off, it can help businesses save a ton of time and money. The quality of your software products is raised by detecting flaws. Automated testing can also assist you in accelerating your software release cycles, increasing the marketability of your goods.

You can automate your testing in a variety of methods, including by using open source, paid, or even specially created technologies. Regardless of your strategy, automation testing can significantly increase the success of your software development initiatives.


Why do you use the term “test closure”?

Ans. Before the testing team formally ends the testing process, a note known as a test closure is created. The following are the contents of this note:

  • Number of test instances overall
  • Total number of tests that were run
  • The total number of flaws discovered
  • The total amount of problems corrected
  • The total amount of defects that are not corrected
  • The total quantity of rejected bugs


Identify the main difficulties in software testing.

Ans. The following are a few of the major difficulties in software testing:

  • The absence of availability of standard papers to understand the application 
  • Unskilled tester shortage
  • Understanding the needs: To communicate with customers about application requirements, testers must have strong listening and understanding skills.
  • The capacity to make decisions about when to halt testing
  • The capacity to perform under time pressure
  • The ability to prioritize which tests to run first
  • Utilizing the optimal number of test cases to test the entire application


What is the typical age of a software testing defect?

Ans. Defect age is the amount of time that passed between the time a tester found a problem and the time a developer corrected it.

Look at the following details when calculating the age of a defect:

  • The irrelevant problem was dropped.
  • Age is measured in either hours or days.
  • Not simply the day the development team rectified the fault, but also the day it was verified and closed, is considered the end time.


What factors can you use to estimate the cost of your project?

Ans.

  • You must take the following factors into account when estimating your project:
  • Break the project down into its simplest components.
  • For each job appoint team members.
  • Calculate the required time for each task.
  • Verify the prediction


What kinds of test scenarios are automatable?

Ans.

  • Incidents of smoke tests
  • Tests for regression
  • Test examples for complex calculations
  • Test situations using data
  • Cases of non-functional tests


Which stage of the development process contains more flaws, design or coding?

Ans. The design phase is more prone to errors when you compare it with the coding phase. The following are the most typical mistakes made during the design phase:

The product falls short of fully satisfying the customer’s criteria.

Defects in the execution phase are increased by poor architecture.

The design phase accounts for 60% of faults on average, while the coding phase accounts for 40%.


What is the information you can find in a test plan?

Ans. The test strategy, objective, schedule, estimation, and resources are described by a test plan. It determines the effort you need to validate application quality under test. To conduct the software testing test plan serves as a blueprint that is monitored by the test manager. The test plan also describes the scope, schedule, approach, and resources of test activities. 

  • Identifiers
  • References
  • Introduction
  • Test functions
  • Pass and fail criteria
  • Test deliverables
  • Planned risks and risk probabilities
  • Supervision criteria
  • Detailed schedule
  • Approvals

Importance of test plan:

  • Help people such as developers, business managers, and customers understand the testing details.
  • A test plan is like a rule book that guides our thinking and the book needs to be followed.

In the test plan test estimation, test scope, and test strategy are documented so that the management team can review it and use it for another project. 


How would you differentiate the preventive and reactive approaches of testing?

In the production of the software, preventive tests are the ones that are performed before the software production. These tests can change the entire production strategy of the software. While reactive tests are performed after the complete software designing.


How will you define scalability testing? Also, state its respective attributes.

The technique that works in coordination with the end-user demand and ensures the healthy working of the system is called scalability testing.

The attributes checked in this testing are, Response Time, Number of users, CPU storage, memory, and network usage, Throughput, and Threshold Load.

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What can you say about spike Testing? 

The sub-attribute of load testing, spike testing, is the test chat that checks the instability of the software application after the load verification. The primary role of spike testing is to check the increase in the amount of load applied to the software and its relative outcomes.

While performing spike testing, we need to keep two factors into consideration

● Cut off the supply of increase in the number of the users to ensure no heavy load on the system.

● Provide warnings for each of the extra joiners and help slow down the response time.


What does load mean in the term load testing? How will you define load testing?

Load is the excessive number of users. An increase in load implies a rise in the number of users.

The technique in which the system is tested for its increasing load, i.e. the number of increasing system users till it reaches the limiting value, is termed load testing.

The main motive behind load testing is to check the system response under the pressure of increasing users.

It is non-functional testing, which implies it rectifies the non-functional requirements of the system. It is performed to check the durability of the system to withstand heavy load.


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How will you deal with a test coverage tool? Explain its working.

If we are using a code coverage testing tool, it’s vital to note that it runs in correspondence to the testing performance of the product. The work of the code coverage tool is to monitor the executed statement of the source code. After the final testing, the all-around reports of all the pending statements are displayed along with the coverage percentage of each parameter.


Which test cases are written first white boxes or black boxes? Why?

Black box test cases are written first. Black box test cases need a project plan and the required documents. All these documents can be easily made available at the beginning of the testing, making it susceptible to carrying out the black-box test first. 

White box tests are performed later as they need more architectural understanding, which is unavailable at the start of the project.


How will you differentiate between latent defects and masked defects?

The masked defect is an existing defect that has not failed the system because there was another defect that was protecting the programing code from being executed.

A latent defect is also an existing defect that has not caused the failure because the sets of conditions were not fulfilled. If this set of conditions have been fulfilled, the system probably has failed.


How will you define breath testing?

Breath testing can be defined as a test suite that investigates the overall functionality of the product software. But it does not test the features and characteristics of the product software in detail.


State the essential components of a defect report format.

There are various components of a defect report format, which can be stated in the bulletins below.

● Name of the project.

● Module name.

● The aspects on which the defect is detected.

● The aspects by which the defect is detected.

● Defect identity and name of the defect.

● Defect Snapshot.

● Priorities and severity status of the defect.

● Facet resolved by the defect.

● Defect resolved on.


How will you define the test harness?

The test harness is the configuration set of tools responsible for testing data to test an application in diverse conditions. It involves monitoring the observed output with the expected output for the corrections.

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When will you use the Decision table testing?

We can use decision table testing to test the systems for which the specifications take the format of rules or cause-effect combinations. In a decision table, the inputs are fed up and listed in a column. At the same time, the outputs are listed in the same column below the inputs. The combinations of the inputs rectify the remainder of the table to the outputs.


How will you differentiate between Pilot and Beta Testing?

Pilot testing is performed using the product by the group of users before the final deployment of the product.

Beta testing is installed at the end customer to validate the product and see whether it can be used in production. Beta testing doesn’t involve the input of real data.


What are the core differences in testing techniques and testing tools?

Testing techniques warfare the process to ensure that some aspects of the application system or the unit work properly. Testing techniques test the proper functioning of a system.

Testing tools are sources through which you can execute a test and investigate the process. The tool is a powerful resource that helps the tester execute the test but is alone insufficient to carry out the testing. 

There can be few techniques but many tools to test the system.


What is the advantage of using Independent testing?

Independent testing procures you with an unbiased test and can help identify different defects simultaneously.


How many agile development methodologies are you aware of? Name them.

At present, there are seven different agile methodologies 

● Extreme Programming 

● Lean Software Development 

● Feature-Driven Development

● Crystal 

● Scrum

● Agile Unified Process

● Dynamic System Development Model


How will you describe a web application?

The web application is a source to communicate and exchange information with the customers. These are different from the desktop applications that need an operating system to operate. Web applications run on a web server and are accessed with the help of. A web browser that has a role similar to a client.

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List out some test scenarios that can be used for testing a website.

● Testing the Graphical User Interface of the website, too, check the flow of design elements and page layouts.

● If the website contains any forms or fields, then the testing scenarios comprise testing with the valid data, invalid data, and testing using existing and empty records.

● They are checking the page links and hyperlinks for their redirection to the desired page.

● Performance testing of the website under heavy user loads on the webserver to check its response time and database query time.

● I was checking the usability of the product with the help of usability testing and database testing.


What do you understand by traceability matrix?

The document in which the relationship between test cases and their requirements is shown is the traceability matrix.


How will you define Equivalence Partitioning Testing?

The software testing technique that divides the application input test data into its partitioned components with at least one of the equivalent data from which the test case can be derived is known as equivalent partitioning testing. This technique is well known for reducing the time to attend to the required software testing results.


What makes Software Testing Life Cycle and Software Development Life Cycle different from each other?

Software Development Life Cycle or SDLC deals with the development or coding of the software. On the other hand, Software Testing Life Cycle or STLC deals with validation and confirmation of the software. Both life cycles are different from each other due to their core functioning.

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What verifications do you perform in white box testing?

In a white box testing following steps can be verified

● Verification of security gaps in the code.

● Verifications of incomplete paths in the code.

● Verification of expected outputs.

● Verifications of rupees in the code line by line.

● Verification to cover testing.

● Verification of the flow structure of the document as per the specifications.


When should you perform the Regression Testing?

Regression testing should be accomplished when the software has been altered or upgraded or when the environment of the software has been changed.


State and explain the differences between positive testing and negative testing?

Negative testing is treated as that test when you insert the invalid input and receive the errors concerning the same. At the same time, positive testing is when you insert the valid input data and expect the action to be completed following the specifications.


Are equivalent partition and equivalent class the same? What do they mean?

Yes, equivalence class and equivalence partition are the same. When input or output data values range, only one value in the range can become a test case. Such a test case is known as an equivalence class or equivalence partition.

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What are the phases that you will come across in a formal review?

A typical formal review process will comprise of six main steps that can be stated as follows

● Scheming

● Kick-off

● Preparation

● Survey Meeting

● Revise

● Apply


Why are static testing and dynamic testing stated as complementary testing techniques to each other?

Static testing and dynamic testing techniques both identify the defects and errors in the system. The difference is that both the testing are diverse in their work.

Static testing is the software testing technique where software is tested without the execution of code. It is used to find and remove the errors and ambiguities in documents such as requirements, designs, cases, etc.

Dynamic testing is a software testing technique used to check the dynamic behaviour of the code. In this testing, the physical responses of the codes are tested.


In the fundamental test process, which activities are included in the evaluation of testability of the requirements and Systems?

Two processes include the evaluation of the testability of requirements and Systems.

● Test Analysis

● Design Analysis


How will you define grey box testing?

A type of testing works to look into the box on which the testing is being carried out. This type of testing is done only to understand its implementation. After this, the box is closed, and we proceed with the black box testing.


What is exploratory testing?

The testing in which simultaneous design testing and execution against an application is done is called exploratory testing. The tester must have the domain knowledge and testing experience to predict the conditions of the system that might behave unexpectedly.


What is Ad-hoc and Agile Testing?

Ad-hoc testing is a phase where the tester tries to break the system barrier randomly to check the system’s functionality.

Agile testing is the process of testing the agile methodologies to follow the test design paradigm.


How will you define Baseline Testing?

Baseline testing is all about running a set of tests to gather performance information. It helps in improving the performance and abilities of the application by using the data collected and implement the desired corrections in the form of changes in the application. The baseline compares the current performance of the application with the previous performance.


How will you explain Benchmark Testing?

The process in which the application’s performance is compared to the industry standards given by some other organization is known as benchmark testing. It is standard testing that differentiates where our applications stand concerning the other organizations. This gives us a clear idea to implement the desired changes to raise our application standards among the competition.


How will you differentiate between preventative and reactive approaches to testing?

Preventative tests are formulated before the software product, while reactive approaches are designed after the software has been developed completely.

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What are the limitations that you come across while applying random testing?

Random testing, also known as monkey testing, is when the data is generated randomly using a tool or an automated mechanism.

The working of the random testing has some limitations

● The maximal number of random testing is utopian and duplicative.

● The process is time-consuming and takes enormous time to deliver results.

● You cannot recreate the test data if you forget to record the test data.


What are the tests you can perform to test a pen?

We can apply both manual and automation Testing. The following tests can be performed 

● Smoke Testing

● Functional Testing

● Integration Testing

● Compatibility Testing

● Ad-hoc Testing 

● Usability Testing

● Accessibility Testing

● Reliability Testing

● Globalization Testing

● Internationalize Testing.


When should we stop the testing?

If we encounter the following cases, we should stop the testing

● We attain stable functionality then we stop testing.

● When we have less time, and we are done with testifying the necessary features, we stop the testing.

● If the client’s budgeting limit is achieved, we stop testing.

● When the given essential feature is not working efficiently, we stop testing.


When and why do we perform the testing?

We perform the necessary testing when we need to check whether the software requirements are delivered correctly. We perform testing to deliver the precise quality product to the clients.


What are the possible reasons to have bugs in an application?

The software can have bugs due to many reasons, which can be stated as follows

● Complex formulation of the software.

● Programming errors observed.

● No communications between the company and the customer.

● Implemented changes in the requirements.

● Time limitations.

Describe TestNG.

Ans. TestNG is a sophisticated framework that maximizes the developers and testers. Additionally, the application includes an internal exception-handling system that prevents unexpected program termination.


What does “browser automation” mean?

Ans. It involves launching the browser, navigating to the application, and interacting with the user interface by clicking buttons or links just like an ordinary user would. The goal is to automatically evaluate a web application’s operation in a browser.

The main distinction is that browser automation can test this frequently and fast, but a human tester would need a lot of time to complete the same test. It comes under automated testing. Selenium, protractor.js, and cypress are a few crucial tools for browser testing.


What is the importance of a Proxy server?

Ans. The proxy server is the server that stands between the client and the primary server in an intermediary role. Through a proxy server, the client requests connections, files, or resources, to the main server, and through the proxy server, the response from the main server is sent. That’s how the main server and the client-server communication occur.


What do you mean by CAST?

Ans. Computer-aided software testing, or CAST for short, is an automated method, approach, and instrument used by a computer to test software applications and programs. Using the testing tools and built-in software testing solutions CAST tools review the tools.


What Is a Proxy server?

Ans. A proxy server is a dedicated computer that acts as an intermediary between a computer and another server. It exists on the same machine and a separate server. The cache of the proxy server can serve all users. There is likely to be a proxy’s cache if one or more internet sites are requested. The proxy interactions are also helpful for troubleshooting. 

The proxy servers based on their purpose and functionality:

  • Distorting proxy
  • High anonymity proxy
  • Transparent proxy
  • Web proxy
  • Anonymous proxy


Why proxy servers are used?

Ans.

  • To enhance the speed of online response 
  • If a document is present in the cache memory, the client receives the response right away.
  • Using web proxies, proxy servers filter the content of web pages.
  • In particular, in a company, school, or college, a proxy server is used to prevent users from accessing offensive web content.
  • Web proxies shield computers from malware and virus attacks.


Describe Defect Triage.

Ans. This is a method of ranking flaws or defects according to the risk they provide, the severity of the bug, and how frequently they occur. Triage refers to the level of urgency, and a tester’s job is to prioritize and fix bugs by their priority.


What Is Cyclomatic Complexity? 

Ans. To determine the complexity of a program Cyclomatic Complexity is a software metric used to determine. The code becomes more complex as the count is higher. The steps to compute cyclomatic complexity and design test cases are as follows:

  • Create a node-and-edge graph using code.
  • Determine separate routes
  • Calculating the cyclomatic complexity
  • Creating test cases


What various methods and tactics are employed in integration testing?

Ans. The two methods used in integration testing are listed below:

Big Bang Method

The big bang approach to integration testing integrates and tests various components all at once. This sort of testing is convenient if systems are small and controllable. Fault localization is a difficult process with this method.

  • Incremental strategy

This is a sophisticated method where two or more modules are connected by taking their logical relationships into account. More modules are added to the loop once a set of modules has been tested, and so on until all of the modules have been put together and tested. Top-down and bottom-up testing are the two methods used to conduct this kind of testing.


What does scaling testing entail?

Ans. It is used to determine whether a system’s functionality and performance can accommodate volume and size variations by requirements. To test for scalability, different software, hardware, and testing environment configurations are changed during the load test.


What is Defect Clustering?

Ans. Any little module or functionality may have several flaws, hence focusing more of your testing efforts on these functionalities is known as defect clustering.

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What is load testing?

Ans. To the website server, a user sends a request to access the website and the server sends a response back in the form of the website which you want to access. The number of responses sent to simulate different traffic loads is multiplied by quality assurance engineers and automation engineers, to load test a website. To the influx of virtual users, the web server’s response can be measured. This will also determine the server capacity and performance issues. 


Differentiate between Selenium and QTP?

Ans.

  • Selenium 

All popular browsers such as Firefox, Chrome, Safari, Opera, and Internet Explorer are supported by Selenium. It is freely available and is distributed as an open-source tool. Only web-based application testing is supported by Selenium.

  • Quick Test Professional

QTP will support firefox, chrome internet explorer, and also windows operating system. It is commercialized. Testing of web-based applications and windows based applications is supported by QTP. 


How to involve a novice tester in project workflow?

Ans.  It is easy to involve someone with the right knowledge and skills testing in a project. The person should be passionate about the testing. You can easily involve this type of candidate in any existing project workflow. Start with the following steps:

  • Give complete information about the project
  • Involve the person in all types of testing activities
  • Communicate about the progress with the person


Describe Agile Testing and its advantages.

Ans. Software testing which follows the agile software development principles is known as Agile testing. It begins with integration between development and testing and it is an iterative development methodology.

The advantages of Agile Testing are:

  • Helps to save money and time
  • It requires proper documentation
  • Need feedback from end users


What part does usability testing play in the testing of websites?

Ans. The answer is that usability testing is crucial to web testing. Usability testing is a well-known method for assessing how easily a user can access the application, whether or not they are familiar with computer languages.

Usability testing for websites consists of the following:

  • To evaluate the usability of the website
  • Is it simple for the end user to move through the applications?
  • The existence of any problems or ambiguities that could harm the user experience
  • Examine how soon the user can finish the task in the program

3RI Technologies offers Software testing interview questions and answers are very beneficial for each of us. We ensure that with a thorough knowledge of this Software testing interview questions you can appear for any interview confidently and get through it successfully. For good software development, strategy testing is very helpful. To decrease the number of bugs, a development team should follow strict coding standards, best practices, and patterns. Testing frequently, measuring the outcomes, gathering input, and using it to enhance the testing process is the greatest long-term plan. Testing is a very important part of the software development life cycle. You can use several testing techniques based on the kind and extent of your products.


How will you give your customer a bug-free product?

Improving the quality of the testing team and obtaining firm test results will help assure a seamless experience for the customer.


State the types of different models available in SDLC?

The models in SDLC are

● Waterfall

● Spiral

● Prototype

● Verification and validation

● Rapid Application Development 

● Rational Unified Process

● Hybrid 

● Agile


How will you classify the performance testing?

The types of performance testing are,

● Load Testing

● Stress Testing

● Spike Testing

● Endurance Testing

● Volume Testing

● Scalability Testing


Make these software testing interview questions a baseline for your preparations. Tackle your software testing interview with the best set of 50 questions and answers that will surely help you get through. 

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